Primary idiopathic seborrhea (skin disease most common in dogs) is characterized by a defect in keratinization (or cornification) that results in increased scale formation, occasionally excessive greasiness of the skin and hair coat.
… WHICH leads to secondary inflammation and infection (ie fungal and bacterial).
NOTE keratinization is the natural process in which cells from beneath the skin are converted to hair and nails (made of keratin). It appears that certain breeds are prone to skin greasiness and dog allergies (such as grass contact allergy) which allows natural fungal populations and bacteria to grow unrestrained and compromise a dog’s health.
Primary seborrhea is more prevalent in breeds such as: Cocker Spaniels, English Springer Spaniels, Basset Hounds, West Highland White Terriers, Dachshunds
Most seborrheic animals have secondary seborrhea in which a primary underlying disease predisposes to excessive scaling, crusting, or oiliness, often accompanied by superficial pyoderma, Malassezia (yeast or fungal infection) infection, and alopecia (hair loss).
The most common underlying causes (of seborrheic animals ) are endocrinopathies (A disease of an endocrine gland). Which is a hormone problem, most common endocrinopathies include hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism and allergies.
The goal is to identify and treat any underlying cause of the seborrhea.
That means that if your dog doesn’t have a gland problem (there are many obvious signs of over and under active thyroids) then the issue is most likely being caused by dog allergies (and allergy to airborne and contact allergy are much greater than food in dogs).
Environmental dog allergies (atopic dermatitis) are more likely to be the underlying cause if age at onset is <5 yr, while an endocrinopathy or neoplasia (eg lymphoma) is more likely if the seborrhea begins in middle-aged or older animals. If pruritus is minimal, endocrinopathies, other internal diseases, or certain diseases limited to the skin (eg, demodicosis or sebaceous adenitis) should be excluded.
Yeast (Malassezia spp) (the most common dog fungal infection) should always be considered when evaluating a seborrheic animal.
If your dog has a lot of itching, but its skin is normal (no scale, excessive dryness or oiliness, no raised lumps (other than where it scratched itself) then Secondary infection (fungal or bacteria) is considered most likely to be the main course of your dog’s discomfort. And then the testing as described in previous blogs such as skin scrapings and growing cultures is given to confirm.
The self-trauma that occurs in pruritic animals (FROM relentless ITCHING) increases the likelihood of a secondary infection. Often, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus spp (bacteria) or Malassezia spp (FUNGAS) are present in abnormally high amounts. This itching causes self perpetuation of the secondary infection.
While fugal medications may control a dogs itch, they wont remove the cause of it, sometimes you will have to have a maintenance program for the dog for life, just like you might for your own allergies. Controlling allergies before secondary infection is very important for your dogs health, happiness, and stopping next level major diseases that can affect the dogs hearing and organs etc (due to compromised immune systems)
anti biotitic Treatment of dogs with skin allergies
For treatment of pyoderma (skin disease that has pus), an antibiotic with known sensitivity against Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is often use. Examples of such antibiotics are
- amoxicillin-clavulanate 13.75 mg/kg bid,
- cephalexin 20–30 mg/kg bid-tid,
- cefpodoxime 5-10 mg/kg/day,
- lincomycin 20 mg/kg bid,
- ciprofloxacin 30 mg/kg/day,
- enrofloxacin 5-10 mg/kg/day,
- marbofloxacin 3- 6 mg/kg/day,
- azithromycin 10 mg/kg/day, 4 days/wk,
- doxycycline 5 mg/kg bid,
- trimethoprim-sulfa 30 mg/kg bid,
- clindamycin 11 mg/kg bid,
- chloramphenicol 50 mg/kg tid (dogs); .
If a bacterial infection is suspected a vet will usually consider a bacterial culture of any animal with pyoderma that does not begin to respond to an antibiotic after 3–4 wk.